Bay State Perennial Farm


Spigelia marilandica 400

 Spigelia marilandica

Aconitum krylovii   An outstanding monkshood with numerous sprikes covered with creamy white flowers that rise above large, deep green leaves. Blooms mid to late summer. After flowering, the mounded foliage continues to look spectacular. Rare. Native to the Altai Mountains of Russia. Zone 3.

Actaea ‘Misty Blue’     A new look for this already attractive woodland perennial, adding a soft, bluish-green cast to the finely cut foliage. White flowers are followed by dense clusters of white fruit, each with a distinct black dot or 'doll's eyes'. And as if that weren't enough, the white fruit are carried on vivid, bright red pedicels for a dynamic, eye-catching display in the shady border. Fruit persists for 4-6 weeks,(fruit is poisonous). Grows 2-3' high and does best in part to full shade with fertile, moist but well drained soil. Zone 4.

Anemone nemorosa

Anemone nemorosa    A welcome harbinger of spring that blooms in April/May with masses of starry flowers floating just above low growing, deeply-cut foliage. At 4" tall, it's perfect for underplanting spring-blooming shrubs or taller bulbs such as daffodils. Given dappled shade and rich soil, they will multiply happily, but mark their spot, as they tend to go dormant in summer. Native throughout much of Europe and into Eastern Asia. Zones 5-9.   Drip2 Drip3

Anemone nemorosa ‘Alba Plena’  The white, double-flowered form of this charming, easy to grow and reliable woodland species. 6-8” tall, spreading by rhizomes. For shade with rich, moist but well drained soil. Zone 4.

anem thalictroides

Anemonella thalictroides (Rue Anemone)      One to five upward-facing white to light pink flowers over fine fern-like foliage, 6-9" high.  Will form tidy clumps and self-sow to form sizable colonies that will carpet the woodland garden with charming white blooms for many weeks in spring. Grow in part to full shade in reasonably fertile as well as moist soil. Zone 4.. 

Anemonella thalictroides ‘Betty Blake’   This Anemonella is sporting a brand new designer color! Fully double, light-green little pom-poms create an eyecatching stirr in the shady border. These haute couture beauties will appeal even to those gardeners withholding judgement on the merit of green flowers, especially since they hold their bloom for up to 4 weeks. 10” high. For shade with rich, evenly moist but well-drained soil. Zone 4. 

Anemonella thalictroides ‘Lloyd’s Big Bloomers’    This exceptionally large and robust form of the Rue Anemone is very long blooming, (up to two months), creating a very satisfying floral display. The upward-facing, white flowers appear over delicate, fern-like foliage. Forms a nice clump and self-sows once it settles in. Zone 4.

Anemonella thalictroides ‘Wilkes Giant’     A welcome harbinger of spring that blooms in April/May with masses of starry, white, extra large flowers that float just above dark green, deeply-cut, foliage. At 4" tall, it’s perfect for underplanting spring-blooming shrubs or taller bulbs such as daffodils. Given dappled shade and rich soil, they'll spread by stolons to form large colonies, but mark their spot, as they tend to go dormant in summer. Native throughout much of Europe and into Eastern Asia. Zones 5-9.

Anemonopsis macrophylla

Anemonopsis macrophylla      One of the Japanese aristocrats. This hard to find woodlander forms clumps of cimicifuga-like foliage topped with nodding, waxy lilac flowers in late summer. Likes a cool moist position. Zones 4-7. 3 ft. Shade to part shade, moist rich soil.

arisaema sikokianum

Arisaema sikokianum    Best known of the Japanese cobra lilies, with white golfball-sized spadix inside a purple spathe. Mid-spring bloom. Cold hardy but needs good winter drainage. Zone 4. 20ins. tall. Part to full shade.

Asarum canadense    (Wild Ginger) Bright green, geart-shaped leaves over unusual brown flowers at the base of the plant. One of our best native groundcovers, it is carefree and surprisingly drought tolerant. Also an alternative food source for the Pipevine Swallowtail. Zone 2.

Asarum europeum (European Ginger)  See under perennials.

Astilboides (Rodgersia) tabularis      Amazing, large, rounded, dark green leaves up to 3' across! Very architectural and fanciful. Creamy white, astilbe-like flower plumes are carried above the leaves in June-July but the eye-catching feature of this plant is the foliage.  Grows 3' high and wide. Requires rich, organic soil that's evenly moist but not soggy. Part to heavier shade is where they're usually sited but sun is ok as long as the soil remains consistently moist. An excellent choice for pond or stream side planting. Always dramatic and attention-getting and very effective combined with plants of contrasting texture such as Variegated Solomon's Seal, burgundy leaved Cimicifuga, and Japanese Silver Painted Ferns. Zones 5-7.

Caltha palustris (Marsh Marigold)     An early spring flowering native with large, bright yellow flowers above shiny, deep green leaves. Frequents wet places but will adapt to rich, reasonably moist garden soil. Grows well in full sun if ample moist is present, otherwise, part shade is best. Zone 3..

Cimicifuga japonica (Cheju Island form)   This superior form comes from Darrell Probst and offers compact foliage and prolific flowering. In early spring, the foliage often emerges with a purple hue before turning green. In late summer, a single mature plant can produce 12-15 graceful white flowers spikes of, 4-5ft. tall. Very resistant to leaf spot. Zone 4.

Cimicifuga japonica ‘Hillside Variegatum’ New 2018     From Hillside Nursery comes this beautiful new Snakeroot with very striking variegation that can vary from a splattered effect to a fine speckling of bright chartreuse and dark green coloring. Numerous, mildly-fragrant, cream-colored flowers spikes bloom in late summer. Zones 4-7. Foliage 8-12” , flower stems 2-3’. Shade to part shade, rich, moist soil.

Cimicifuga racemosa    5-7' spires of white flowers bloom July-Aug. A statuesque and elegant woodland native that delivers late summer color to the woodland garden. Light, all-day shade or morning sun and afternoon shade yields more attractive, sturdily upright plants. Soil should be rich and reasonably moist.  zone 3.

Cimicifuga rubifolia   A very appealing native Bugbane, more compact growing, with large, maple-like leaves and characteristic showy white, mildly fragrant flowers carried on shorter spikes, only 2-3' tall. Blooms in late summer. Grow in part to heavier shade, in rich, moist soil. Zone 4.

cornus canadensis

Cornus canadensis     (Bunchberry) A slow spreading ground cover with white upfacing flowers over overlapping whorled leaves. Red berries in late summer. Best grown in a deep cool mulch. Circumboreal. Zones 2-6. 6-8 in. Shade to part shade, moist acid soil.

We’re selling large, blooming size Cypripedium

Cypripedium “mix”    This Lady-Slipper mix offers the chance to obtain this choice woodland plant at a significant saving. They’re younger, by a year or two, than the mature, blooming specimens that we offer, and they are only slightly smaller. They may bloom this year or they may wait until next year to bestow their sumptuous blooms on the shade garden. They’re a mix of named varieties.   

Cypripedium reginae      (Showy Lady-Slipper)  Elegant rose-pink and white flowers in late May into June, often blooming for up to four weeks. Not the easiest of the lady-slippers to grow but really not that difficult if given the right placement: high open shade, constantly moist (but not wet) soil, with a neutral pH. Once established it can form large clumps and persist for years. Eastern U.S. Zones 3-8. 16-24 in. Part sun, moist rich neutral soil that does not dry out.

Deinanthe bifida    (Two-Lobed False Hydrangea) An herbaceous perennial related to hydrangea. Forms a mound of lush, hydrangea-like leaves, 18”-24” high and, over time, 24” wide. Looks like a miniature hydrangea right down to the small white flower clusters carried over the leaves in June. For part to full shade with rich, evenly moist, well-drained soil.  Zone 4.

Diphylleia cymosa (Umbrella Leaf)     A bold, large-leaved, shade lover grown for its foliage effect, flowers and berries. Tightly folded, reddish-brown domes emerge in spring and unfold into broad, deeply toothed, dark green, nicely textured leaves. In May, arching flower stems appear above the leaves carrying flattened, upright disks of creamy white flowers that later become dark blue, pea-sized berries displayed on bright red pedicels for an eye-catching contrast. Under favorable conditions plants will form large, stately clumps, 30-60" high. The bold foliage and exceptional berry/pedicel display make these plants effective companions for other large, shade loving perennials and shrubs. Also very impressive in drifts. Grow in shade, in rich, evenly moist soil. Zone 4.

disporum flavum

Disporum flavum    (Korean Fairy Bells)  A rarely seen but easy-to-grow shade loving plant that, when happy, forms sizable clumps of tall, 30” stems carrying large, dangling, yellow bells in spring followed by pea-sized, blue berries in the fall. Makes a choice addition to any woodland garden. Zone 3.

Dodecatheon (mixed colors)   (Shooting Star)  Charming cyclamen-like flowers in white, pink, and red carried on slender stems well above flat rosettes. Goes dormant late summer. Zones 3-8. 16-24 in. Full shade to sun, moist humus soil.

Erythronium dens-canis     (Trout Lily) Early spring blooming ephemeral with lilac to soft-pink, six-petaled, reflexed flowers that bloom on 8in. stems over a pair of narrow, elongated blue-green leaves. Plants go dormant by early June and return The following year. A treasure in any woodland garden.

Gaultheria procumbens

Gaultheria procumbens ‘Very Berry’   An especially heavy fruiting strain of this favorite native woodlander. Grows 6" high by up to 2' wide after several years, forming attractive, low mats of glossy, evergreen leaves that turn burgundy in winter. Small white flowers bloom in summer and, though small, they have an irresistible charm as they nestled amongst the dense, glossy leaves. Flowers are followed in late fall and winter by pea-sized, bright red berries. If not eaten by critters, berries often persist into spring. For part to full shade with organic, evenly moist but well-drained, acidic soil. Can be grouped for attractive, small-scale groundcover, or used as specimens at the front of the shady border where their four season garden appeal can be fully appreciated. Good wildlife plant. Zone 3.

Gentiana andrewsii with bee 175

Gentiana andrewsii     (Bottle or Closed Gentian)  An Eastern North American native with erect stems, 24-30ins. high and dark blue flowers, 1 ins. long, tightly closed. Blooms late summer and a treat to see blooming in moist meadows alongside Chelone glabra and Solidago. Easy to grow in evenly moist soil, in sun to very light shade. Zone3.  At the top of the picture see the bumble bee wriggling his way into the flower.

Gillenia trifoliata

Gillenia (Porteranthus) stipulata   (American Ipecac) Large numbers of one-inch star-shaped white flowers on wiry red branches. Blooms freely late May through June with flowers generously distributed throughout, looking as though they'd been sprinkled down from above and gently come to rest on the branches without actually being attached. The effect is light and airy and unforgetable.  Visitors unfamiliar with the plant never fail to exclaim over its special appeal. Habit is upright, vase-shaped, 3-4'. For part to heavier shade with average, reasonably moist soil. Established plants are quite tolerant. Eastern U.S. native. Zones 4-8.

Gillenia (Porteranthus) trifoliata     (Bowman's Root) Large numbers of one-inch star-shaped white flowers on wiry red branches . Blooms freely late May through June. Plants have a sturdy, upright habit with a shrub-like appearance. When in bloom, the glistening white flowers resemble white moths flitting through the branches. This under-used plant not only adds shape and texture, but it also thrives in dry, shady sites. Eastern U.S. native. Zones 4-8. 2-3 ft. Part shade, garden soil.

Porteranthus Pink Profusion

Gillenia (Proteranthus) trifoliata ‘Pink Profusion’    Clear pink, star-like flowers bloom late spring and early summer over deep red stems carrying reddish leaves. Flowers are delicately held, appearing barely attached to the stems and at risk of taking flight on the first breeze. Plants seem almost shrub-like, with an attractive upright, vase-shaped, intricate network of slender but strong branches. For shade with moderately moist, organic soil. Both in and out of bloom, plants lend an eye-catching vertical accent to those often overlooked shaded areas. Zone 4.

Glaucidium palmatum     This rare Japanese woodlander has large silky purple-pink flowers over full maple-like leaves. Blooms for up to three weeks in spring. We offer a selected form that is strong growing. It can in time produce large two-foot round clumps covered with flowers, often with two blooms per stem. Zones 3-8. 14-24 in. Shade to part shade, rich moist well-drained soil.

Hepatica acutiloba (Sharped-Leaved Hepatica)  One of our prettiest flowering native plants forming dense clumps of attractive floiage 6" tall by 10" wide. In early spring, March-April, charming white to blue flowers rise 2-4" above the foliage in profuse quantities. Full to part shade, moist well-drained soil. Eastern US native. Zones 4.

Hepatica nobilis    (blue flowered form) This is the European form of Hepatica with deep blue flowers that emerge in early spring, followed by tri-lobed leaves. Hepaticas are among the loveliest of early spring blooming, woodland plants. Without peers in the charm department! Grow in light to full shade in rich, moist but drained soil with a neutral or higher pH. Zone 4.

Hydrastis canadensis 175

Hydrastis canadensis     (Goldenseal) A handsome, bold-textured, native plant with large, twin maple-like leaves held horizontally and gold rhizomes that spread nicely. Flowers are inconspicuous but fruit is attractive in late summer, raspberry-like, tightly perched atop two adjoining leaves. 2’ tall. Grow in open shade, in organic, acidic soil. Zone 4.

Iris cristata See under Perennials.

Jeffersonia diphylla Twinleaf    White flowers in May followed by interesting pipe-shaped seed pods over large, twin, kidney-shaped dusty blue-green leaves. Forms nice clumps and is useful both as a specimen plant and planted in mass. Best in a moist site, but tolerant of both drought and root competition once established. Eastern U.S. native. Zones 3-8. 10-12 in. Full or dappled shade, moist humus soil.

jeffersonia dubia

Jeffersonia dubia Asian Twinleaf   Older plants can have up to 50 upward-facing blooms of a blue to lavender-blue that can be seen from hundreds of feet away. It's one of the first plants to bloom here every year. The leaves form after the plant has flowered. Easy in the garden, this highly-sought-after plant is suitable for even the beginning gardener. Native to Japan, China, and Korea. Zones 4-7. 10-16 in. Shade to part shade, garden soil.

Kirengoshoma See under Perennials

mertensia verginica

Mertensia virginica VIRGINIA BLUEBELLS    Shoots rise in early spring as the ground thaws. Flowers start as clusters of pink buds, then open up to bright blue bells. After blooming for several weeks, seeds ripen, and the plant begins to fade, going dormant in early July. Native to eastern woodlands. Zones 3-8. 12 in. Part shade, moist humus soil.

Pachysandra procumbens     (Allegheny Spurge) An eastern North American species with bottlebrush flowers in early spring and large mounded, silver-mottled leaves. Clump-forming. Zones 4-8. 8-12 in. Full to part shade.

Paeonia obovata     (Asian Woodland Peony) Native to forests of Siberia, China and Japan. 18”-24” tall, blooms in mid May with single, 3” across, pink or white, cupped flowers. Flowers are followed by pea-sized, jet black seeds nestled on a bed of bright red pulp, highly ornamental. Foliage remains attractive through the season. Similar to P. japonica but somewhat later blooming. Zone 5.

podophyllum hexandrum

Podophyllum hexandrum 'Majus HIMALAYAN MAYAPPLE     A clump-forming mayapple with pink upward-facing cup-shaped flowers in early spring, before the brown, marbled leaves are fully developed. Followed by four-inch egg-shaped seed pods. Zones 4-8. 16-20 in. Part shade, moist rich soil.

Podophyllum peltatum Mayapple    Large white flowers under umbrella-like leaves. Spreads vigorously. Blooms in May. Eastern U.S. Zones 3-8. 12-15 in. Full or part shade, moist rich soil.

Polygonatum humile    (Dwarf Solomon’s Seal)  A very appealing miniature Solomon’s Seal that makes a great ground cover, especially under other Solomon’s Seals. Petite, arching stems with paired leaves and dangling white bell-shaped flowers followed by blue berries. Grows only 8-10” high, blooms in spring. Tolerates dry conditions in late summer. Native to northeast Asia. Zone 4.

Polygonatum commutatum    (Giant Solomon’s Seal) The majestic arcs of P. commutatum grace the shade garden, and feature white bell-shaped flowers followed by attractive blue berries. Blooms in spring. A large natural tetraploid form. Eastern U.S. Zones 3-8. 4-6 ft. at maturity. Full or part shade, good loam.

Polygonatum ‘New Yorker’    This is a stunning solomon's seal. It tends to send up two tall shoots at every root tip making for a very full clump. It also tends not to run very far from year to year, again allowing for a nice full clump. One other distinct characteristic is that all the stems arch in different directions making for a 'bouquet effect'. Could be either a Polygonatum hybridum or some sort of tetraploid. we’re not sure. Part sun to shade, moist to moderately dry soil. 2’-3' tall, zones 5.

Polygonatum lasianthum    A very attractive Asian Solomon's seal from South Korea and Northern Japan. The small woolly flowers stand out almost horizontally on long stems, the better to be seen through the narrow lance-shaped leaves. Slow spreading rhizomes will form a large clump over time. 14-20" high. Zone 4.

polygonatum odoratum variegatum

Polygonatum odoratum 'VariegatumVARIEGATED SOLOMON'S SEAL    This plant has arching stems with paired leaves, white bell-shaped flowers followed by blue berries. Blooms in spring. The white and cream striping on this strong-growing form are what makes this one so popular. Native of Europe. Zones 3-8. 20 in. Full or part shade, good loam.

Rodgersia tabularis    Amazing, large, rounded, dark green leaves up to 3' across! Very architectural and fanciful. Creamy white, astilbe-like flower plumes are carried above the leaves in June-July but the eye-catching feature of this plant is the foliage.  Grows 3' high and wide. Requires rich, organic soil that's evenly moist but not soggy. Part to heavier shade is where they're usually sited but sun is ok as long as the soil remains consistently moist. An excellent choice for pond or stream side planting. Always dramatic and attention-getting and very effective combined with plants of contrasting texture such as Variegated Solomon's Seal, burgundy leaved Cimicifuga, and Japanese Silver Painted Ferns. Zones 5-7.

Sanguinaria canadense     In early spring, pure white, 1" wide, rayed flowers appear, last for a few days, and then are gone. Though one wishes they held longer, the flowers possess such delicate beauty that it's enough to enjoy even a fleeting glimpse. After bloom is finished, attractive round, gray/green, leaves increase, sometimes up to 10ins, across, forming tight, gradually spreading colonies suitable as modest woodland ground covers. 9-12ins. high. Grow in shade, in moist but well drained soil. Evenly moist soil becomes more important when plants are expected to perform as groundcovers through the season. Zone 3. 

Sanguinaria canadense ‘Multiplex’ (Double Bloodroot)    Double, pristine white, rayed flowers 1" across in early spring. Flowers open bulging with petals, looking like small Gardenias. Their stay in the garden is brief, several days depending on the weather, but their exceptional beauty makes a lasting impression and leaves the gardener looking ahead to their reappearance next spring.  The leaves are large, round, blue-green in color, forming attractive, dense colonies that are suitalble as shady groundcovers. 8-10" high. Grow in shade with moist but well drained soil. Zone 4.

Saruma henryi    A ginger relative with downy heart-shaped leaves and bright, lemon- yellow flowers most heavily produced in spring and then intermittently through summer, 2ft. tall. Grow in shade with reasonable moisture. Easy to grow and a willing self-seeder. Zone 5.

Spigelia marilandica - 175

Spigelia marilandica     Long, narrow crimson buds peel back to reveal bright yellow interiors,(also cream and chartreuse). One of natures fireworks displays, stunning. Blooms in July from bushy clumps 12-16ins. tall and wide. Grow in moist, light shade. Very late to emerge in spring. Be patient, it’s worth the wait. Zone 4.  Drip2 Drip3


stylophorum diphyllum

Stylophorum diphyllum   (Wood Poppy) Mounds of deeply cut leaves. Two-inch yellow flowers, late spring. Very popular and easy to grow plant, great with Virginia Bluebells. Eastern U.S. Zones 4-8. 24-30 in. Full to part shade, moist humus soil.

Syneilesis aconitifolia Shredded Umbrella Plant    Large, umbrella-like leaves, incised to a fare thee well with lobes reaching back to the petiole. Interesting from the minute they poke up in spring looking like mushrooms. As plants continue to grow, the closely folded leaves flare out to reveal their fascinating shredded form. About 2’ high. Easy to grow in part to full shade with evenly moist, rich soil. Zone 3.   

Trillium grandiflorum    (Great White Trillium)  To come upon a drift of glistening Great White trillium is to understand why it is one of the most admired of all native wildflowers. In spring, large, pure white flowers are carried well above the foliage on sturdy stems. Their simple elegance imparts a sense of tranquil beauty unmatched in the spring woodland or in the spring wildflower garden. The white flowers eventually turn pink before giving way to the large seed pods. Plants grow 12-18ins. tall and require reasonably moist, organic soil with a pH around neutral or slightly acid. Easy to grow under favorable conditions, and reasonably quick to establish colonies through self sowing. Zone 3.

Trillium similie (flexipes)     These may be either similie or flexepes. Over the years they've been identified by different people as one or the other. T. simile, as its name suggests looks similar to both T. erectum var. album and T. flexipes. It has a large creamy white flower with a dark purple ovary. Trillium flexipes, on the other hand, has a white or pink ovary, but has the same cream colored flowers. The parent plants of these seedlings are 20 in. tall with a leaf span of 12 to14 in. Please note that about 5% of these are turning out to be some sort of hybrid with very nice deep purple flowers instead of white. Zones 4-8. 7”-20” tall. Full/dappled shade; moist, humus-rich, soil. Peter Joppe, owner of Hillside Nursery, feels that this is the best looking and best performing trillium that he grows.

Trillium recurvatum    (PrairieTrillium)  This is a long blooming form with dark maroon flowers. It has very erect stems and thin mottled leaves. It gets its name from the strongly recurved sepals that curve back against the stem. The form we're offering is taller than most and forms larger clumps once established. 12-14" tall. Light shade with moist to wet soil. Zone 4.

Trillium sulcatum    (Southern Red Trillium)  One of the most beautiful and easy to grow trilliums. A stately upright plant with broad leaves and erect flowers in spring, most of which will bloom red but a few might be white or pink. Native to southeastern U.S. 10”-14” tall. For shade, with neutral to acid leaning soil. Zone 5.

Uvularia grandiflora      Soft yellow, elongated, bell-shaped flowers dangle from the upper portion of tightly clumped, gently arching stems. Blooms in spring, fragrant. Leaves are long and narrow, blue-green in season turning yellow in autumn. 16" high. Adapted to part and full shade with moist, neutral soil.  A no-fuss, choice woodland gem that delights with charming, fragrant flowers in spring and then continues to catch the eye with its attractive habit and foliage. The overall appearance is reminiscent of the smaller Solomon's Seals. Zone 4.




Location of the Nursery:
Bay State Perennial Farm
36 State Road (Routes 5 & 10)
Whately, MA 01093
(413) 665-3525


Mailing Address:
Bay State Perennial Farm
P.O.Box 706
N. Hatfield, MA 01066



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